Uterine congenital malformations affect 3-4% of women. Septated uteri represent 35% of the total abnormalities. It is considered the most common uterine malformation, with a prevalence of 1-2% in the general population.

Septation of the uterus occurs as a result of incomplete absorption of the fused area of the two Müllerian ducts, this may lead to a complete or partial septum formation. The complete septum reaches the os, completely dividing the uterus into two cavities. The partial septum or sub-septum divides the uterus partially sparing the OS. Complete septated uteri are classified as class Va and partially septated uteri are class Vb.

The complete septate uterus with cervical duplication and vaginal septum is not included in the classification of Buttram and Gibbon or in the American Fertility Association classification of uterine malformations.

Although some authors advocate respect the cervix and do not cut the intercervical septum with the intention to minimize the risk of developing cervical incompetence, recent studies have shown that there is no cervical incompetence in a group of women undergoing intercervical section of the septum. In a randomized study Dr. Parsanezhad et al compared 28 women who were randomized to two groups: in one group, section of intercervical septum was performed, while in the other group the septum remained intact. The section of septum was noted to be the safest method and reproductive outcomes were similar in both groups with no significant differences in rates of abortion, preterm delivery and pregnancy carried to term between the two groups.